An Attempt to Characterize the Frequency, Health Impact, and Operational Costs of Oil in the Cabin and Flight Deck Supply Air on U.S. Commercial Aircraft – Judith T. L. Murawski and David S. Supplee

The potential for heated engine oil and hydraulic fluid to contaminate the aircraft air supply due to maintenance, operation, and design failures or deficiencies is an ongoing problem that has been documented in the aviation industry since the introduction of the “bleed air” air supply system in the 1950s[1,2]. With the bleed air design, outside…

Toxicogenomic Studies of the Rat Brain at an Early Time Point Following Acute Sarin Exposure

Abstract We have studied sarin-induced global gene expression patterns at an early time point (2 h: 0.5·LD50) using Affymetrix Rat Neurobiology U34 chips and male Sprague–Dawley rats. A total of 46 genes showed statistically significant alterations from control levels. Three gene categories contained more of the altered genes than any other groups: ion channel (8…

ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SARIN INCREASES BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER PERMEABILITY AND INDUCES NEUROPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE RAT BRAIN: DOSE^RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS

Abstract We hypothesize that a single exposure to an LD50dose of sarin induces widespread early neuropathological changes in the adult brain. In this study, we evaluated the early changes in the adult brain after a single exposure to different doses of sarin. Adult male rats were exposed to sarin by a single intramuscular injection at…

Disruption of the Blood–Brain Barrier and Neuronal Cell Death in Cingulate Cortex, Dentate Gyrus, Thalamus, and Hypothalamus in a Rat Model of Gulf-War Syndrome

We investigated the effects of a combined exposure to restraint stress and low doses of chemicals pyridostigmine bromide (PB), N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrininadult male rats, a model of Gulf-War syndrome. Animals were exposed daily to one of the following for 28 days: (i) a combination of stress and chemicals (PB, 1.3 mg/kg/day; DEET, 40…

Early Differential Elevation and Persistence of Phosphorylated cAMP-Response Element Binding Protein (p-CREB) in the Central Nervous System of Hens Treated with Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate, an OPIDN-Causing Compound

Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces organophosphorus-ester-induced delayed neuro-toxicity in sensitive species. We studied the effect of single dose of DFP on the expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB), which is a well known transcription factor involved in several pathways mediating different types of external stimuli. The hens were perfused with neutral buffered formalin at…

Subchronic Dermal Application of N,N-Diethyl m-Toluamide (DEET) and Permethrin to Adult Rats, Alone or in Combination, Causes Diffuse Neuronal Cell Death and Cytoskeletal Abnormalities in the Cerebral Cortex and the Hippocampus, and Purkinje Neuron Loss in the Cerebellum

N,N-Diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin have been implicated as potential neurotoxic agents that may have played an important role in the development of illnesses in some veterans of the Persian Gulf War. To determine the effect of subchronic dermal application of these chemicals on the adult brain, we evaluated histopathological alterations in the brain of…

Enhanced activity and level of protein kinase A in the spinal cord supernatant of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-treated hens. Distribution of protein kinases and phosphatases in spinal cord subcellular fractions

Abstract Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) is a type I organophosphorus compound and produces delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in adult hens. A single dose of DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc.) produces mild ataxia in hens in 7–14 days, which develops into severe ataxia or paralysis as the disease progresses. We have previously shown altered expression of several proteins (e.g.…