Disruption of the Blood–Brain Barrier and Neuronal Cell Death in Cingulate Cortex, Dentate Gyrus, Thalamus, and Hypothalamus in a Rat Model of Gulf-War Syndrome

We investigated the effects of a combined exposure to restraint stress and low doses of chemicals pyridostigmine bromide (PB), N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), and permethrininadult male rats, a model of Gulf-War syndrome. Animals were exposed daily to one of the following for 28 days: (i) a combination of stress and chemicals (PB, 1.3 mg/kg/day; DEET, 40…

Early Differential Elevation and Persistence of Phosphorylated cAMP-Response Element Binding Protein (p-CREB) in the Central Nervous System of Hens Treated with Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate, an OPIDN-Causing Compound

Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces organophosphorus-ester-induced delayed neuro-toxicity in sensitive species. We studied the effect of single dose of DFP on the expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB), which is a well known transcription factor involved in several pathways mediating different types of external stimuli. The hens were perfused with neutral buffered formalin at…

Subchronic Dermal Application of N,N-Diethyl m-Toluamide (DEET) and Permethrin to Adult Rats, Alone or in Combination, Causes Diffuse Neuronal Cell Death and Cytoskeletal Abnormalities in the Cerebral Cortex and the Hippocampus, and Purkinje Neuron Loss in the Cerebellum

N,N-Diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin have been implicated as potential neurotoxic agents that may have played an important role in the development of illnesses in some veterans of the Persian Gulf War. To determine the effect of subchronic dermal application of these chemicals on the adult brain, we evaluated histopathological alterations in the brain of…

Enhanced activity and level of protein kinase A in the spinal cord supernatant of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-treated hens. Distribution of protein kinases and phosphatases in spinal cord subcellular fractions

Abstract Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) is a type I organophosphorus compound and produces delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in adult hens. A single dose of DFP (1.7 mg/kg, sc.) produces mild ataxia in hens in 7–14 days, which develops into severe ataxia or paralysis as the disease progresses. We have previously shown altered expression of several proteins (e.g.…

C-fos mRNA Induction in the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-Treated Hens

A single dose of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP), an organophosphorus ester, produces delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in hen. DFP produces mild ataxia in hens in 7–14 days, which develops into severe ataxia or paralysis as the disease progresses. Since, OPIDN is associated with alteration in the expression of several proteins (e.g., Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase…

MECHANISMS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTER-INDUCED DELAYED NEUROTOXICITY: Type I and Type II

INTRODUCTION This review describes a group of organophosphorus compounds with delayed neurotoxic properties (I). Delayed neurotoxicity is a delayed onset of pro­longed locomotor ataxia resulting from a single or repeated exposure to an organophosphorus compound (2, 3). For many years, this effect was wrongly termed “demyelinization” or “demyelinating disease” because of the early misinterpretation of…

Air Travel and Health: an Update – House of Lords Science and Technology Committee

Public and media interest in contaminated air events, or fume events, has significantly increased in recent years. The independent Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food Consumer Products and the Environment (COT) has conducted a scientific review of the evidence for claims that fume events have damaged the health of pilots and others, and has…